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Mainstream & Quality Schooling for Physically Disabled Children - Inclusive Education (ilm-ideas Grant)

IDRC - TEDSA Program
Citizens' Voice Project-Tax Collection Sector in Central Punjab
Governance Education Network
E-Governance (GIS/MIS) - NARIMS
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RESEARCH

GINI’s research portfolio includes:
 

A study focusing on 34 public accountability organizations at the federal and provincial levels. These included the National Accountability Bureau (NAB), the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA), and the Office of the Auditor General (AG) to name a few. For each organization, quantitative and qualitative data was gathered dating back to the establishment of the organization, wherever possible. The quantitative component of the data was organized into 4 thematic areas: financial, administrative, legal and performance aspects. The qualitative component of the research methodology was designed to answer more intangible questions relating to organizational culture and informal rules, incentives, political and service environments. These were approached by conducting in-depth focus group sessions with relevant officials using the quantitative data and information to explore the history of the institution. Research findings included a pattern of persistent ineffectiveness after the initial novelty of newly established organizations wore off, regardless of changes made to their financial authority, legal mandate, administrative capacity, or independence. Research concluded that perverse institutional incentives embedded in both formal and informal rules, led to the re-emergence of erstwhile behaviors as soon as initial reform momentum abated. These incentives affect not only the research partners but the entire bureaucracy, and were poorly understood and left unchanged by reform efforts.
 

Another study involves a general historical analysis of civil servants’ salary structures and their evolution since the late 18th century to identify the turning points in compensation policy which led to desirable institutional behavior. The post-Pitts Administration epoch emerged as an era of both radical salary increases and exceptionally low levels of corruption, followed by a century of wage compression and real reduction in salaries, numerous rigidities and imbalances in the compensation structure which create a moral hazard for civil servants and other government employees inviting venality. The research concluded that the argument for a weak or non-existent relationship between monetary incentives and corruption must be reassessed.
 

A survey was conducted of 6000 public servants in 30 randomly chosen districts across all 4 provinces of Pakistan in an attempt to model moral hazard profiles of local government officials which created a commensurate space for and incentivized corrupt behavior. Disparity of income versus the rising cost of living expenditures emerged as the most significant incentive for corruption. Low probability of apprehension/punishment accountability institutions was also a major incentive for corrupt behavior. To specify policy responses, the survey went on to calibrate compensation expectations of public servants which would be comparable to market rates for private sector salaries payable for their experience and qualifications, and which would allow them to maintain a respectable standard of living.

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CAPACITY BUILDING
 

  We at GINI recognize that no state has an installed capacity for  institutional change of the magnitude successful governance reform demands. This capacity must created as part of the reform itself. The majority of elected officials, civil servants, and civil society leaders have little preparation and few life experiences in institutional reform. They are educated and experienced in leading and administering the status quo, not in transforming it.

   GINI is currently serving as Secretariat to a Governance Education Network (GEN), comprising voluntary membership of 21 educational institutes, research centers and think-tanks from both public and private spheres across Pakistan. GEN operates in partnership with the Norwegian Institute of Urban and Regional Research (NIBR) based in Oslo, Norway. The aim is to advance governance knowledge and increase governance capacity by developing a curriculum for college and university students, and prepare a national pool of qualified faculty for teaching it. The project also features an Executive Training component to target senior governance practitioners, as well as a research fund for conducting research on contemporary governance models and themes such as alternative delivery mechanisms, and country-specific governance indicators. Annual conferences facilitate communication and coordination among network members and allow project activities and outputs to receive the necessary attention of national and international stakeholders.

  Our network members include:

  1. Higher Education Commission (HEC), Islamabad

  2. Beaconhouse National University (BNU), Lahore

  3. Centre for Public Policy & Governance (CPPG) FC College University, Lahore

  4. International Islamic University (IIU), Islamabad

  5. Institute of Administrative Sciences, Punjab University, Lahore

  6. Institute of Public Policy, BNU, Lahore

  7. Government College University (GCU), Lahore

  8. Hamdard University, Karachi

  9. Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore

  10. Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), Lahore

  11. National School of Public Policy (NSPP), Lahore

  12. National Defense University (NDU), Islamabad

  13. National University of Modern Languages (NUML), Islamabad

  14. Pakistan Institute of Development Economics University (PIDE), Islamabad

  15. Quaid-I-Azam University (QAU), Islamabad

  16. University of Karachi

  17. Devolution Trust for Community Empowerment (DTCE), Islamabad

  18. Pakistan Institute of Legislative Development and Training (PILDAT), Islamabad

  19. PATTAN, Islamabad

  20. Social Policy and Development Centre (SPDC), Karachi

  21. The Researchers, Islamabad

  22. Institute of Educational Development, Aga Khan University, Karachi

  23. Philanthropy Centre of Pakistan (PCP), Islamabad.

  A number of additional institutes have voiced interest in network membership and their details are under consideration.

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ADVOCACY
 

  At GINI we understand that advocacy is not an adjunct to policy analysis but an integral part of the process. Without it research and analysis will remain inert, insular and impotent, unable to affect and unaffected by the reality of policymaking. Successful advocacy needs a support platform of broad representation amongst policy stakeholders which is why GINI adopts a networking approach in all advocacy interventions. GINI’s own research has been presented at the international level in Austria, Ukraine, USA, France, and Singapore as well as through national and local events in Pakistan to provide maximum policy exposure.

  Most recently, GINI organized a Pakistan-Norway Forum 13-15 December, 2009 in Islamabad which brought together governance scholars and experts from Norway, USA, Canada, and Pakistan, as well as politicians, bureaucrats, diplomats, civil society leaders, journalists, representatives of the corporate sector, and members of the international donor community. Policymakers were presented with cutting edge research on key governance areas. Mr. Humayun Saifullah, Member, Parliamentary Committee on Constitutional Reforms attended the session on ‘Federalism: Theory, Practice and Challenges’ which featured debate and discussion centering on key aspects of his work with the Committee. Mr. Owais Ghani Governor of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the frontline province in the war against insurgency and terror attended the session on ‘Sustainable Governance Strategies to Counter Terrorism’ learning of the best practices in international counter-terrorism efforts. Dr. Sohail Naqvi, Executive Director, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad was presented with research conducted by the GEN focusing on governance education in Pakistan at the college, university and executive levels.

   GINI also completed two projects of Citizens Voice Project by USAID through small grants on "Improving Water Rights of Poor and Disadvantaged Farmers" and "Citizens Voice & Public Accountability in Tax Collection Sector (Sales Tax Reforms)" in three districts and relevant tehsils/unions councils/villages of Central Punjab - Sargodha, Faisalabad and Gujranwala - initiatives under Research-based advocacy for community development for participatory and responsive governance reforms.

   We have  also started a new project related to research-advocacy for policy reforms - with DAI-ilm ideas in financial support of UKAID-DFID for "Citizens' Voice and Public Accountability in Mainstreaming Children Living with Physical & Learning Disabilities through Access to Quality Education" in the four districts of Central Punjab – Khushab, Sargodha, Faisalabad and Gujranwala-15 months project - Dec, 2013 - Feb, 2015.


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